The Blue & Other Blood

 A Detailed 

Mastiff History

Starting point for appropriate research is the pedigree of Ormonde , born April 7, 1886 and bred by Mrs George Willins of Bradmore House , Hammersmith [London] , a racehorse fancier who named her Mastiffs after hallmarks of the turf alike Ayrshire, Minting and Ormonde , considered as one of the best race horses of all time …

This 19 generations pedigree shows generously the evolution of the breed throughout the Victorian era . Judging on this  piece of paper art , the nucleus of ‘recorded’ early Mastiff breeding must have been situated in the North of England , confirmed by Stonehenge' words ~ ‘the good English Mastiffs have all come from Lancashire , Cheshire & the North of England  , where some years ago they were still in considerable request for guarding large bleaching grounds‘.

Two engravings published in the Illustrated London News [1861] ~ at left Mr Hindrey’ Mastiff at the Holborn [London city] show ~ at right Cautley’ Quaker at the Birmingham show ; when comparing them one can suggest that , nevertheless the OEMC nor the Kennel Club weren’t yet established , they represent a fairly uniform breed type .

An example a fortiori was ‘Cautley’ Quaker’ bred by a breeder from Yorkshire [North of England] . Malcolm Bush Wynne' History of The Mastiff  mentions ~ ‘Quaker [bred by James Wigglesworth Thompson , Halifax  Yorkshire] carried all before him at the Birmingham show and a portrait of him appeared in the Illustrated London News [December 1861] being among a group of prize dogs , drawn by Harrison Weir , who very cleverly, by way of contrast , placed the prize bloodhound by his side . Instructive talent of this sort should be paid his due . The drawing shows that Quaker carried his ears partially erect , a characteristic of the true old English Mastiff as shown in Bewick' cuts .’ Quaker was sold as a puppy to Henry Cautley of Bramley near Leeds and later on obtained the sobriquet of 'champion of England' .

George Fox [see at left] founded the Society of Friends or Quakers  , a variant of Puritanism, which carried through strongly on the Puritan concern for a Spirit-mediated encounter between God and man who literally 'trembles' at the word of God , a decidedly different religious experience opposite other Puritan groups a/o the Congregationalists with Sir Titus Salt as a prominent member . It could be possible that Mr Thompson , who was on friendly terms with the wealthy manufacturer Sir Titus Salt , named this dog 'Quaker' as a kind of  nickname . Edgar Hanbury and Mark Beaufoy , leading Mastiff breeders of the Victorian era, both descended  from Quaker familie.

James Wigglesworth Thompson [1818-1875] bred also another very renowned  stud pillar , the brindle Bill George' Tiger who sired the first Mastiff champion :  Hanbury' Duchess . Tiger was sired by the red fawn Lion owned by Sir Titus Salt who lived in 'Crownest' , Lightcliffe nearby Brighouse, only some miles removed from  James Thompson' residence and also in the close nearby of Kirklees Hall , the living place of  Sir George Armytage whose Lion sired Sir Titus Salt' Lion .

Sir Titus Salt [1803-1876] was a wool stapler who discovered the fabulous qualities of the 'alpaca' fibre ; later on alpaca garments were found in the finest fashion houses all over the world . By the mid 19th century his  massive Salts Mill  was the leading edge of textile industry , employing more than 3000 people .

Salt was a leading member of the West Riding Congregationalism and also a philanthropist who ordered to build a model manufacturing town , called Saltaire , which comprised 900 houses  , stores , parks , playgrounds , schools , almshouses for older people and a hospital . He advocated a severe discipline but he refused to have a police office in the village , otherwise pubs were forbidden .

Malcolm B. Wynne’ ' The History of The Mastiff ' mentioned ~  'The Lancashire cloth Mills were places where Mastiffs were kept in considerable numbers both for fighting among each other and as watch dogs .'  So it could be possible that also Salts Mill , some 20 miles away from Lancashire , also housed a Mastiff crew … Sir Titus Salt was also Member of Parliament from 1859 until 1861, so he regularly resided in London where he could have contacted Bill George ,  a very well known dealer of quality dogs . In 1876 the big industrial city Bradford gave Sir Titus Salt a civic funeral ; the procession was watched by more than 100.000 people .

Another Yorkshire man who kept Mastiffs at that period was Mr Holdsworth of Ashdale Hall , near Elland ; he was JW Thompson' relative by marriage and owned another Lion who was mated to Duchess , a bitch found in a fox trap by the Kirklees' gamekeeper John Crabtree .

At left ~ A breed specimen from Abraham Rees [1743-1825] ‘ magnum opus Cyclopaedia ~ part ’Quadrupeds‘  [1810] ; at right ~ A woodcut published in Edward Jesse ‘Anecdotes  of Dogs’   , Bohn, London [1859] . They are very similar in type ; Rees’ one showing a somewhat more pronounced forechest & a rather heavier muzzle with deeper flews , but both are different in type of head against the fancy of the early shows with top-winning specimens mostly renowned for their great height at shoulder , as p.ex. ch’s Hale’s Lion b ‘66, Aglionby’ Turk b ‘67 & Green’ Monarch b. ‘71 .

An interesting item is the brindle colour ; the Ormonde' pedigree shows a lot of brindles , certainly during the first decades of 'recorded' breeding , which also is in accordance with Stonehenge , who mentioned ~ ‘brindled dogs were originally held in the highest estimation , because the brindle is the characteristic of the Mastiff only and so far a proof of purity .’

But the breed became rare , as the strains of quite a lot of big estates became extinct . They were the main sources which could afford to breed Mastiffs in large numbers . The reason[s] of extinction , one only can guess , as maybe the march of guns , a so-called easier method for defending the house , or the lack of staff , in particular kennel men due to the call of the cities which more and more magnetised rural people on their search for a better live.

Around 1830 - 1840 , an important number of imports was made ; Alpine Mastiffs and Spanish Bulldogs were some of them . These breeds became intermixed with the old English Mastiff strains of those big estates [a/o Chatsworth] as a result either of widening the small gene pool or of the change in the fancy of the day .

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer’s Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time  &   his  'doubtful crumbs' [1859] , showing a dozing Alpine Mastiff . The Bolton Abbey Estate , some 50 miles north of Chatsworth , passed to the Cavendish family of Chatsworth  through the marriage of Lady Charlotte Boyle to William Cavendish , who became the fourth Duke of Devonshire in 1755 .So when Sir Landseer painted the scene , Bolton Abbey was owned by William Spencer Cavendish, the 'Bachelor' Duke of Devonshire . Looking at the left corner , one can discover a pied bald Mastiff-like specimen with pendulous lips . Sir Edwin Henry Landseer [1802-1873] , the most celebrated English animal painter & sculptor, best known for his 'four Lions' of the Nelson monument in Trafalgar Square , a celebrated landmark .

Not aware about extensive pedigree breeding by the upper classes as of Bold Hall, Kirklees , Trentham , Elvaston , Lyme Hall and Chatsworth , it were James W. Thompson of Halifax Yorkshire and Mr Lukey of London , who gave the main details to  the  oldest entries of the  Mastiff studbook, founded by the Kennel Club [1873] .

The 5th Duke (see here below) , William Cavendish [1748-1811] ,  a man of few words who was happiest at home with his dogs , a habit that in the Devonshire house set earned him the nickname ‘canis‘ . Devonshire , one of the twenty-eight English dukes and only superseded in rank by royalty , yet his idea of a good time was to drink and play cards with his cronies at Brooks', the exclusive club where he dined nightly , year in , year out , on a broiled bladebone of mutton ; at right ~ his Chatsworth'  Lion , painting attributed to Thomas Hardy , 1801 (here below at right) . This Lion represents a rather different breed type opposite the already mentioned specimens depicted by Rees & Jesse , the former together with a predecessor of the Bulldog [a pot-house dog mainly owned by ordinary people] and the latter shown in a rural environment as should he have been a watch dog owned by farmers .  Lion gives an impression of aristocracy displaying a clean plain head , long & rather snipey in muzzle and bearing large but thin ears ; maybe Miss Aglionby , Miss Hales & other early dog fanciers aimed at this type of Mastiff .

A main pillar of early Mastiff breeding was Pluto , discovered in 1835 by Mr Thomas HV Lukey , when walking along the Serpentine [London‘ Hyde Park] ,  as a magnificent black Mastiff , accompanied by a manservant in livery . Pluto became the foundation sire of Mr Lukey's strain . Owned by the Marquis of Hertford  , he was so great a favourite that he always travelled with him and was accidentally shot in Austria by the keeper of Arch Duke Franz Karl-Joseph [1802-1878] .

The Marquis of Hertford was Francis Charles Seymour-Conway [1777-1842] . In his youth , he must have been a wastrel with a limited allowance who would do anything to obtain money .Lord Francis got to know Maria Emily Fagniani , the daughter of Donna Constanza Brusati who performed as a singer and dancer in the Italian opera . Donna Constanza was been married the Marchese Giacomo Fagniani , but after her divorce she re-married William Douglas [1724-1810] , the Earl of  March and Duke of Queensberry, who , in the coarse days of George III , was the patron of the Turf and a notorious man of pleasure .

Lord March hinted to Lord Francis that his stepdaughter' husband would give him a generous father-in-law and could expect a great inheritance upon his death ! As a result, they married in 1798 and lived together for about 3 years, after which they moved to Paris . Here , Lord Francis soon had a mistress , Madame Visconti .

After a while Lord Francis returned to London alone where he became a colourful citizen ;  his wife continued to enjoy herself in Paris . In 1810 Old Q , the Duke of Queensberry , died at an age of 84 and left all his freehold and copyhold estates to Maria Fagniani and Lord Francis , who's later life was devoted to dissipation , foreign trade and being an art connoisseur he also acted as a salesroom agent for Queen Victoria's uncle George IV, the Prince of Wales . Both men were attracted by the luxury and refinement of the 18th Century French art and by Dutch paintings a/o. Rembrandt's Titus .

In 1811 , Lord Francis tried to reconcile with his wife , but she had no wish to return to England . In 1818 , his son Richard , born in 1800 , got a child by Agnes Wallace , who later on became  Sir Richard Wallace . The Seymour-Conway House  Manchester Square , London  ,  now famous as the     ' Wallace Collection ' ,  was leased as the French Embassy from 1836 till 1850.

In 1822 , the year Lord Francis' only daughter died , he succeeded the dukedom but remained abandoned by his wife and in 1834 also his mother died at his home in London , Manchester Square . A year later , coincidentally the year when all animal baiting contests were made illegal in England , Mr Lukey called upon Lord Francis . His Lordship was 58 years old , but still full of spirit when Mr Lukey asked permission to breed from Pluto . ‘ The Marquis remarked that before granting any such request , he must see the female Mr Lukey proposed mating with the dog , whereupon Mr Lukey had to confess that he had no such animal then , but meant to procure one , if the Marquis would grant his request ; Lord Francis laughingly dismissed him, saying that he liked his impudence …

At right -  a print supposed to have been a part of the scrapbook of Malcolm Bush Wynne of Scalford , representing –presumably - Thomas HV Lukey [1804-1882 , ‘farmer’ at Morden , vide Post Office Directory 1855]  with one of his specimens linebred to Pluto, the black Mastiff belonging to the Marquis of Hertford . Being son of a Kentish squire , he went into the coal trade , having his place of business, Milford Lane , London , nearby the Thames . In the 1860ties the kind hearted and generous old fancier with his short burly figure , so thoroughly English , had a considerable demand for puppies for foreign countries sending them to a/o Egypt & Naupal [a sister a brother of Pluto’ grandson Bruce I had been sold to the Nepaulese Prince for £105] , this maybe in partnership with his brother, Captain Lukey who didn’t functioned at low profile . Once he brought a Maltese bitch , named Psyche, to England  as a present to H.M.Q. Victoria but being on board nine months her coat was in very bad condition on her arrival !

Another ‘Captain Lukey’ story was reported by ‘The Windsor & Eton Express’ dd 6th August 1842 ~ An Extra-ordinary Little Horse ~ On Monday last a diminutive horse , or mule , arrived at the Royal Mews in Sheet-street , whither it had been brought from London by the Great Western Railway . The curious little animal is , no doubt , the smallest of its kind in England , it is but twenty-six inches in height , and is four years old . Its colour is a dark brown , and when got into better condition then it is at present , its appearance will doubtless be very much altered for the better ; at present there is an absence of beauty , and the animal has now much the appearance of a mule . The curiosity was brought over from Java by Captain Lukey , of the ship Victor . The captain took the horse with him, inside a cab , to the Mansion-house upon his arrival in London, upwards of two months ago , and galloped it up and down the saloon before the Lady Mayoress and some of her friends. Upon taking leave Captain Lukey whipped the little animal up , and ran down the stairs with him amidst great laughter , and depositing him in the cab , drove off to the west end of the town .We understand that the present was accepted by her Majesty from Captain Lukey , through Lord Charles Wellesley , who spoke of the animal as the smallest he had ever heard of . Shortly after its arrival in Windsor it was taken to the Quadrangle , where it was seen by her Majesty and Prince Albert , their Serene Highnesses the Hereditary Prince and Princess of Saxe Coburg Gotha , and the visitors at the castle , and put through its different paces . On Tuesday morning it was taken upon the New Terrace , for the purpose of its also being seen by his Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge , and the Princesses Augusta and Mary of Cambridge , and several of the court .

On the strength of his 'rendez-vous with Lord Francis - Marquis of Hertford , Mr Lukey employed Geo White to procure as good a bitch as money could secure and obtained a bitch with tail & ears cropped in order to prevent their getting frost-bitten . Lord Francis giblingly asked if he had stolen her , due to her mutilated appearance …’ The Marquis of Hertford died in 1842 at Dorchester House , Park Lane Mayfair, overlooking Hyde Park where Mr Lukey met the Marquis’ huge black Mastiff Pluto . Relying on Mr Thompson , Esq. , who affirmed that Mr Lukey told him in 1851 that Pluto was black and the largest and best Mastiff in all points he ever saw, one can suppose that Mr Lukey not only asked permission to breed from Pluto but also angled for the origin of that high quality dog , before employing Mr Geo White to procure him  ‘as good a bitch as money could secure‘.  So , it could be possible that Mr White , one of the better class London dog dealers , became informed by Mr Lukey concerning this matter and possibly came in contact with the Duke of Devonshire' stud [Chatsworth] in order to become a bitch of similar lines .


Esteeming Mr Lukey as an astute student of strong linebreeding [thirty years] in order to consolidate his foundation quality , one can freely guess that Mr Lukey' first litter was already a linebreeding to the Chatsworth strain , because his foundation bitch was stated in Stonehenge 1859, by a note signed T.L. ( most probably T. Lukey ) , as bred by the Duke of Devonshire and also because M.B. Wynne suspected that : ‘Pluto had a large percentage of Asiatic or Thibetan blood’ . The latter deserves some explanation . The Duke of Devonshire of the day was William Spencer Cavendish, ‘Hart‘ , who succeeded the dukedom in 1811 , at the age of 21 .

At left - Cut by Harrison W. Weir  from GF Pardon’s  ‘Dogs , Their Sagacity , Instinct and Uses ‘ published in 1857 . The Mastiff drawing is , according to Malcolm B Wynne,  very interesting as Weir had then seen and studied Mr Lukey’ Mastiffs , taking them for his models , and this specimen is remarkably like the type of Mr Lukey’ Bruce 1st [grandson to Marquis of Hertford’s Pluto] , also his descendant Peveril , and it may be accepted as a good example of Lukey’ tpye of that date, although I’m unaware if it was merely an ideal or a portrait


This 'Bachelor' Duke never married but loved entertaining , embellishing his houses with every kind of art objects and travelling extensively throughout Europe . He wasn't only particularly close to the famous architect Paxton , the designer of the Great Exhibition Centre in London [Crystal Palace] , but also to Czar Nicolas . In those days it was an aristocratic tradition to give each other precious presents as also big guarding dogs , therefore proving their own 'powers' . Reference is a/o found in Stowe's Annual which shows that James I [1566-1625] sent a gift of two Lyme Mastiffs to Philip II of Spain .

'De Bylandt' , edited in 1904 , volume II , presents an illustration of 'Polkan' (see below) , a Russian Bear Hound also called Medelan . Polkan was owned by The Emperor of Russia . The Medelan standard mentions a/o height at shoulder about 27 1/2 inches , weight about 180 lbs , head very heavy , powerful, large ; skull broad between the ears , coat semi-long , dense and hard . This Polkan' picture shows a relevant similarity with the English stamp of heavy Mastiff type of the 19th Century . So, it could be possible that 'Polkan' was a long-termed result of international partnership between a Duke and a Czar ; opposite this, it could be true that the Czar's guard dogs of Russian of maybe Asiatic type [the Russian Empire was infinitely vast]  were also at home in Chatsworth , situated at the East border of the Peak district and overlooking the Derwent .

Now coming back to Pluto , suspected by MB Wynne of having possessed a large part of Asiatic or Thibetan blood , this combined with the fact he too had a 'hardish' coat alike the standard description of the Medelan ànd with the logic of Mr Thomas HV Lukey' linebreeding practices who's foundation bitch , old bobtailed Countess , was bred by the Duke of Devonshire [Chatsworth] , one can esteem that Pluto was maybe a descent of the Chatsworth strain . An important 'Chatsworth' descent was Mr Nichols' huge Big Ben , born 1870 , who measured 8 feet 3 inches from tip of the nose to his tip of tail , exactly the same length as the Guinness  record holder of the 'heaviest dog'  title , Aicama Zorba of La Susa , b. '81 ,  who was 35 inches high at the shoulder .

The history of Chatsworth House  (see pic at right) starts off with Bess of Hardwick born around 1527 who married in 1547 Sir William Cavendish [ of Suffolk ]  , one of King Henry VIII' commissioners in the dissolution of the monasteries , who was rewarded for his work with former monastic lands and used his prestige and influence with the Crown commissioners to exchange some of the property for large tracts of Derbyshire . In 1567 Bess of Hardwick re-married George Talbot , Earl of Shrewsbury , one of the most powerful men of the country. Queen Elisabeth I appointed the Earl as goaler to Mary , Queen of Scotts , who was frequently kept at Chatsworth while under his guard . In 1590 Lord Shrewsbury died and Bess became the richest women after the Queen . Her great grandson William Cavendish was created 1st Duke of Devonshire for his part in the ' Glorious Revolution '

The Chatsworth strain is also behind a number of stud pillars of the late 19th Century  : 1) the brindle champion Cardinal (see at right)  , the  foundation stud of Mr W.K. Taunton , was sired by  Big Ben who was out of Meg , sired by the painter R Ansdell’ Leo (see at right 'perhaps' Leo as the painter' model) supposed of Lyme Hall origin, out of  Juno, daughter of the Duke of Devonshire' Bendigo ; Big Ben wasn't a show dog being disqualified owing to lameness , 2) champion Beau , bred by Mr Edwin Nichols , was out of  Big Ben's daughter Belle ; Beau sired 4 champions : Ilford Baroness , His Majesty King Canute , Cambrian Princess and of course Beaufort , who entered the 'Hall of Fame', not only in England but also in the States , 3) champions Orlando & Hotspur, bred by Dr Sidney Turner , going back to Big Ben' champion daughter Lottie, their great great-grandam ; note : they were sired by champion Crown Prince out of Lady Rowena which parentage also gave 4 champion daughters , namely Lady Isabel , known as ch. Beaufort's dam , Rosalind , Lady Gladys and Elaine; all six were bred by Dr  Sidney Turner ; 4) champion Victor Hugo , bred by Mr Nichols, a 5th generation descendant of Big Ben along Hereward who was mated to Venus by Mrs Cunliffe who was alike Mr Nichols a very renowned Newfoundland breeder . The mentioned Venus was sired by Wolsey' brother Prince out of an unknown bitch , maybe of Newfy origin ?

About champion Beaufort (see here below) there's an interesting detail within the judge report about the Crystal Palace Kennel Club show, edited in the Kennel Gazette  , February 1887  : ‘ … but owing to the enormous development of the fifth toe , which he inherits from his sire Beau , he moves rather wide behind . ‘ 

This seems to be another part of the puzzle about the statement that Chatsworth' Mastiffs were mostly of Alpine origin , generally spoken of the same type as the old English one but larger , coarser and owning rather more frequently a fifth toe . In earlier times of St. Bernard breeding there was a fallacy that Alpine Mastiff specimens were highly regarded when they possessed 'double dew claws' with which nature was said to have provided them in order that they should not sink in the snowdrifts …. Later on , scientific research stated that the loss of the equivalent of the 'big toe' seems to accompany the evolution of the 'up on the toes' stance of canids by natural selection .

There's another possible link between Chatsworth and one of the other 19th century stud pillars, namely champion Green' Monarch , who sired the champions Nero (above at right) & Gwendolen , the latter owned by WK Taunton and ancestor of many quality specimens as a/o. the champions Lily II , Griselda  and Carshalton Prince . Green' ch Monarch (above at left)  was namely a 4th generation descendant of 'Lord Henry Bentinck' Nell .

Lord Henry Bentinck was a very well known Deerhound breeder who lived in Cottesmore , Rutland , and was related to the Cavendish family because of the marriage of his ancestor , the 3rd Duke of Portland and once Prime Minister , William Henry Bentinck to the 4th Duke of Devonshire's daughter Lady Dorothy Cavendish , whom became the great-great grandparents of ' Queen Mum ' ! 

So it could be possible that this Nell came also from the Duke of Devonshire' stud , which was mainly renowned in horse racing  .  At the time this stud possessed the  oldest studbook for horses in whole England . It was William Cavendish [1640 -1707] who was created  1st Duke of Devonshire  for his part in bringing William of Orange and his wife Mary to the  throne after the glorious revolution , who already had a passion for horse racing and his steward frequently complained that money, owed to craftsmen at Chatsworth , was being lost at Newmarket ….

Opposite the Chatsworth influence, there was also the Lyme Hall strain , probably better known by most Mastiff fanciers . The most successful studline starts off with the prophetical named parents , namely Adam [claimed to have been of the Lyme Hall strain] and Eve [bought at London’ Leadenhall market] ; their son Col. Garnier’s Lion sired Lukey’ grand Governor‘. The Ormonde' pedigree shows in the 12th generation Ansdell' Leo, who was supposed  to have been of Lyme Hall origin . Leo sired  Duchess, foundation bitch of one of the early leading breeders ,  Mr Nichols , of Kensington , London .

At left - Mrs Rawlinson' champion Countess , chosen by Vero Shaw to illustrate ‘the ideal Mastiff bitch’ in his ‘Points of the Mastiff’, shoulder height 31.5 i  girth of chest 42 i  girth of skull 25.5  i  ; at right  ~  Mr CT Harris’ champion The Shah , sired by Hanbury’ champion Rajah & along his dam side grandsired by Lukey’ Baron , brother to Lukey’ champion Beauty .

Mrs Rawlinson’ ch. Countess was a big roomy champion bitch , bred by Mr Williams of Stroud . On the male side she was the result  of four generations of breeding by Mr Nichols , ending up in Nichols' Sultan , who mated to Old Flora [believed to be of Lyme Hall origin], produced this Countess , the dam to the well known champion The Emperor sired by  champion The Shah , bred by Mr. Balleston of Palewell Villa , East Sheen , London .

At left ~ A part of an engraving by RH Moore showing a breed specimen claimed by one source as to represent ch Crown Prince ; at right - some show winners a/o ch The Shah , presumably ch Crown Prince’ double grandsire ; the artist of this drawing , Stanley Wilson , may have taken up a quite common feature in Victorian days , ie the tendency to extravagance in order to point up the importance thereto , in this case the bulk required in Mastiffs .

The Emperor (sired by ch The Shah)  was believed by a number of breed connoisseurs of the day to have sired champion Crown Prince whose progeny dominated the golden 1880ties , counting nine champion children which has been a breed record during more than a century .

As already mentioned  there has been an intermix with Alpine Mastiffs and maybe also Spanish Bulldogs . Besides Mr Lukey' Alpine Mastiff foundation bitch , old bobtailed Countess , his strain was build up with another Alpine specimen , the red smut Couchez imported from St Bernard in 1839 , firstly owned by Mr Geo White who also owned another stud used by Mr Luckey, namely Geo White' dog , possibly also of Alpine origin .

About the Spanish Bulldogs one can find in the history of the English Bulldog that in the 1870ties  ‘The Bulldog Club Inc.’ was established in order to save the pot-house dog from gradual extinction  as well as from the Spanish Bulldog  'threat' .  It was under the generalship of Mr Frank Adcock that there was a fancy to enlarge the Bulldog from its average size to one of a weight of 100 to 120 lbs by using the Spanish Bulldog . One can get an impression of this extinct breed through a painting of Castellano [1853] , which shows a Molossus type of dog (see below) in the company of Spanish aristocracy . Also in the seventies there was a decent change cropping up in the phenotype of the prevalent winners , leaving the long headed winners as a/o. Aglionby' Turk , Hales’ Lion & Green' Monarch and gradually more fancying the shorter headed type as a/o  ch's Rajah , Taurus  , Wolsey &  Beaufoy' Nero .

It seems this relatively quick and patent alteration cannot have been only the result of the judging fancy or line-breeding into former winning stock , but rather also of the specific use of short headed specimens from breed lines noted for square measures as par example Lukey’Bruce II~Wallace~Elmsley’ Druid (see  above at right)  , or maybe also some Spanish blood …

Prominent bodily breed features of those days  seemed to have been the tucked up flanks of the shorter headed & ditto bodied ones [par example Baron Banbury’ champion Wolsey] and the relatively deep loins of the longer headed & bodied Mastiffs as a/o Aglionby champion Turk . Those tucked up flanks were rather common in Buldoggy corpses and rather inherent to shorter heads less or more inherited via the following line up of studs . The longer headed Mastiffs  , on the other hand , were too 'Boarhound like' and too pale in characteristics to please the majority of the fanciers & judges of the day .

At left - Coloured chromolithograph from Cassell’  ' Illustrated Book of the Dog ' ch. Wolsey b. 1873 , owned by Fred George Banbury , 1st Baron Banbury of Southam  [1850-1936] ,  politician , country house Shirley nr Croydon , city residence Grosvenor Square 23 , London ;  in those days the majority of the residents at Grosvenor Square  had always been titled . Champion Wolsey was bred by Edgar Hanbury of Highworth ; height at the shoulder 30 1/2 inches , girth of skull 29 1/2 inches and weight 136 lbs .  Girth of body 41 1/4 inches , length of muzzle 4 inches , stop to occiput  9 inches , length of back 31 inches . Wolsey' fawn son Rufus , born 1875 , and bred by F.G. Banbury was exported to Boissevain of Amsterdam . Wolsey' older brother Prince , owned by Edwin Nichols , sired Reverend Mellor' ch Creole &  Nichols' ch Beau . At right - A wonderful breed picture published in Johnson' Household  book 'Nature'  and presumably drawn by Harrison Weir .

At left - Bruce I' grandson Weller' Wallace inbred by THV Lukey to his blue or slate coloured Bruce II (mated to his daughter Bounty) . 'It may be laid down as certain that two cardinal points Mr Lukey ever kept in view were a  a well formed head and broad loins in the sires he used ; seeking these perfections in the individual animal rather than seeking in any study of pedigree , a point he seemed to me very indifferent about , so long as the animal suited his judgment , .... at time (like all really successful breeders) he had no objection to a distinct cross' vide MB Wynne pp 201  .

At right - Wolsey' grand-uncle Peveril [born 1863 out of Juno by a Deerhound sire  ex Weller' Wallace] bred by Wm Elmsley &  owned by Charles Bathurst , Sidney Gloucester . 'Peveril was a light red brindle with a large amount of white on face , neck , flank , chest and legs ; he also inherited the bar sinister, the dewclaw, showing his Alpine ancestry . There is an excellent coloured engraving by Vaughan Davies , of Wolsey , in part viii of Cassell’ Book of the Dog ; the likeness to Peveril in head is very marked , and the ears in both fall too close to the head for Mastiff purity , while both had the same round faced , stupid cat-like expression' - dixit MB Wynne ‘ ‘The History of the Mastiff ’ page 205 . Peveril took the Birmingham Hotelkeeper’ Cup for the Best Mastiff in 1870 , nevertheless Mr Kingdon esteemed him of St Bernard type ; he was brother of Lindoe’ Druid who sired  champion Queen and grandsired champions Briton , Hector , Lottie & Wolsey . Peveril’ sire Weller’ Wallace , bred by THV Lukey , was inbred to his blue or slate coloured Bruce II [mated to his daughter Bounty] ‘It may be laid down as certain that the two cardinal points Mr. Lukey ever kept in view were a well formed head , and broad loins in the sires he used ; seeking these perfections in the individual animal rather than in seeking in any study of pedigree , a point he seemed to me very indifferent about , so long as the animal suited his judgment . ~… at times [ like all really successful breeders ] he had no objection to a distinct cross .’ vide MB Wynne’  pp 201 .

The most skilful breeders as a/o Mr Walter Kelsey Taunton , seemed to have  combined the best of both worlds , but opposite this , there seems to have been a fancy in the opulent Londoner saloons of the wealthy middle class for a bulky type , a  'Sagina' , carrying a most imposing almost caricatural head , appropriate to the common exaggerating spirit in the Victorian heyday when the British Empire was on his summit of authority & power , favouring flamboyant ornamentals in their houses, but also in their entourage of living creatures , such as also the ' antique ' Mastiff .

That in those days this could lead up to  exalted exaggerations is a/o displayed by the ‘large pig’ advert . This exhibition poster shows not only the length to which selective breeding had been carried [the pig obviously found it almost impossible to stand on its legs]  but also the element of showmanship which competition could engender . Other examples of this philosophy of life can be found into the contemporary magazine 'Punch , or the London Charivari' .

Besides this craze for extravaganzas , this era was definitely coloured by the introduction of new breeds . H.R.H. Queen Victoria was  also an adept at the dog fancy and was co-responsible for several foreign breeds appearing in England  , a/o the dark brown Tibetan Mastiff Bout (see first row below) ,  given in 1847 to Queen Victoria by Lord Hardinge , Governor-General of India .

In 1842 B.H. Hodgson , the well-known naturalist who was then Resident of Nepal , described the breed as follows : ' there are several varieties , black , black and tan or red with more or less white. Some have a fifth toe behind ' . Charles Darwin acknowledged Hodgson for his observation of the fifth toe (dewclaw) in this breed in his famous work on Animals and Plants under Domestication , published in 1868. Whether Tibetan Mastiffs belonging to the Royal family have interfered with the Chatsworth strain in the early XIX century cannot be outspoken .

The Mastiff breeder WK Taunton , one of the great authorities in England on foreign dogs , owned also several ' new breeds ' as Mexican Crested dogs , Chows and Esquimaux dogs . WK Taunton’ specimen of foreign dogs ~ the Esquimaux Sir John Franklin (see above at  right of two Indian Mastiffs) , a dog considered by many to be the best Eskimo Dog ever  exhibited . Taunton maintained contact with Abraham Dee Bartlett [1812-1897] , Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens , who owned the brindle Mastiff bitch Tayra , born 1879 and bred by Taunton . Bartlett also owned several Esquimaux . In the early 1900s a pair of Tibetan Mastiffs were also kept and bred at this London Zoo .

Within this general scope of 'foreign breeds' interests by London’ residents , one can imagine the bloom into the dog breeding of the day. This was certainly the case when they could supply the doggy people some fresh , exotic and exuberant cynological creatures as par example the Spanish Bulldog . London became also the centre of Mastiff breeding , where also a relevant number of dog dealers were involved in Mastiff breeding , maybe crossing the old native breed with the Spanish breed in order to create a more characteristic face , anticipating the exaggerating fancy of the day . MB Wynne mentioned that the Alpine Couchez , imported ca 1839 by  dog dealer Geo White ~ ‘had a cross of the Spanish Bulldog blood in his veins , however his blood enters into the most of the present day Mastiffs , as he was the 2nd  cross Mr Lukey made .’

A photograph of a Spanish Bulldog ; at right ~ Couchez aka Turk [height 30 i weight 130 lbs]  owned by Lord Waldegrave . 'Dog fighting was a Sunday morning amusement among certain noble patrons who believed less in the Homilies of St Chrysostom , for  they delighted to pit other dogs against the redoutable Couchez , who although often much smaller than his antagonists , was always victorious ; as a fighting dog he was simply [to use the language of Shakespeare] unmatchable  ~ sic MB Wynne p. 164 . Lord George Edward Waldegrave~7th Earl [1816-1846] resided at Horatio Walpole’ Strawberry Hill Twickenham , 20m SW of London . Horatio Walpole was an historian , man of letters , antiquarian and Whig politician .

In 1840 Bill George (see pic here above) , London dog dealer , imported a brindle pied marked Spanish Bulldog which he named 'Big headed Billy' . Around 1870 several Spanish Bulldogs were imported by a/o Bill George' acquaintance , Mr Adcock . These male specimens were ca 90 lbs , height 22i , girth of skull 22i & described as very muscular with powerful shoulders & neck , broad & deep chest , large feet , head with cropped ears , lots of wrinkles, deep stop, undershot muzzle with deep flews .

Frank Adcock of Shevington Hall - Wigan [solicitor , well-known to his skill , thorough knowledge and excellent judgement of the Bulldog] , mailed a description of the Mastiff, anno 1800 ,  to the Reverend Wynne  ‘Of a very powerful make , 28 to 30 inches high, ... colour tanned or brindled , with a black muzzle , a dark spot over each eye, and these colours varied with white‘. It seems that he  wanted to believe that those pied bald markings were inherent to the 'pure' old English Mastiff type . Bill George also owned the well-known brindle Mastiff sire of those days , Bill George' Tiger , bred by Mr James Wigglesworth Thompson , Halifax Yorks . Tiger sired the first Mastiff champion , Duchess , who was bred by Mr Edgar Hanbury , one of the founding breeders of  1/3 ratio headed Mastiffs .

Sam Woodiwiss (see pic  with pipe) , Graveleys - Chelmsford - President Bulldog Club Inc.  The most successful XIX Century Bulldog fancier & Mastiff CC judge in 1935 , 1936 & 1938 . Dogues de Bordeaux ' Cora ' & ' Turc '  (see pic) imported in 1895 by S. Woodiwiss , London. The then average male BX measures : 25.5 i height , 26.5 i. skull , weight 120 lbs .The Bordeaux Dog seems to have been imported to England , from 1885 onwards when the square headed Mastiff type was almost fixed . The city of Bordeaux , once occupied by England ,  is only 120 miles removed from the Spanish border , therefore a possible element to the theory of the common origin of the Bordeaux Dog and the Spanish Bulldog .

One could get the impression Mastiff breeding of the 19th century was an entire and constant mix-up of different blood . This certainly wasn't the case because the skilful breeders tried to fix their good points and avoid the bad ones by combining  two complementary lines as ,  par example , Green' Monarch' all-round size and Hanbury' Rajah' square head type or by careful line-breeding towards an outstanding stud or brood .

The quadruple Crufts ' winner , Peter Piper , bred by Mr Woolmore , went back to champion Beau  along 3 grandparents .  Of course pedigrees alone cannot breed outstanding stock , but Elgiva (see painting & photograph here above)  , born 1895 , and bred by one of the best XIXth century breeders , Mr Court Rice , was the first champion who got back to that same very renowned stud , champion Beau , through all her grandparents .  Not surprisingly one of the best bitches in many years! When one looks at the oil painting of Elgiva made by Wm Josiah Redworth , one can discover a fifth toe on the left hock or how blood can tell. The Mssrs Woolmore & Rice achieved a high level of quality , nevertheless the overwhelming presence of  Crown Prince into  the whole  Mastiff stock at the end of the XIXth century . According to Mr Oliver , of Hellingly, in the Kennel Gazette of 1935 , Crown Prince was the 'damnosa hereditas'  - ie Dudley faced , light eyed , straight hocked , short bodied and also a poor mover .

In a manner of comparison ,  portraits in profile  of two XIX century breed  specimens who show some likeness … At left ch Crown Prince b. 1880, bred by H.G. Woolmore of Leyton  owned by Dr F. Winslow , 23 Cavendish Square  , London sold at an auction in 1884 for £ 180 ; at right Othello , owned by Dr J. Viard of St-Etienne ; engraving from ' L'Eleveur' published in  Bylandt' Races des Chiens - Doque de Bordeaux with uncropped ears .

When studying the showreports , one can assume that CP owned some specific BX attributes as light eyes , liver colored nose, reddish mask , short neck & back and ditto tail . There isn't however a source which can reveal the presence of Bordeaux Dog[s] in England before 1885 . According to an official Kennel Gazette show report, February 1881 ~ ‘ … but the sensation of the show was Crown Prince , such a puppy has not been seen  since The Shah made his appearance  on the showbench , he is only eleven months old , and already has the best head we have ever seen on a Mastiff !

What will he be when he is three years old? ‘He has a broad skull , wrinkled forehead , short face and square blunt muzzle, his body is magnificent , his legs perfectly straight , with great bone, capital feet , and such a loin ! A very nice sister of his, of extraordinary characters and quality, took first prize in the puppy bitch class - she will heard of again , without doubt .

In those days , there were no Best in Show awards as at present , but at 'the First Exhibition of Sporting and Other Dogs held in the Winter Gardens , Bournemouth , 3rd 4th 5th January 1882' Crown Prince won the class for champions of any breed . During the whole history of dog shows at championship level , so far as known , no single  Mastiff in England could repeat this striking feature.

Mr Hanbury was one of the most successful Mastiff breeders who bred  five remarkable champions [Duchess , b. 1860 ; Queen, b. 1870, Rajah , b. 1870; Taurus , b. 1871 and Pontiff , b. 1879]  . His judge report about the Alexandra Palace show (see pic below), July 1882 , mentioned ~ ‘In the Champion class , Crown Prince rightly carried off the prize ; he was in tip top condition and if one could only be disabused by his Dudley coloured foreface , and he were longer in body [a decided fault]  and one , I am much afraid , which is getting prevalent , I consider him one of the finest specimens extant.'

So, judging Mr Oliver' statement , it may look rather unfair to lay all breed problems before the (Prince' door , taking into account Crown Prince being (most probably) the result of line-breeding towards that most successful Rajah/The Shah line ; the truth , like always , may lie between pros vs cons , somewhere in the middle  . At each of the last three Alexandra Palace championship shows a challenge award was won by  f 1 progeny of champion Beau [ch Ilford Baroness 1881 & 1882 ~  ch. Beaufort  1889] .

Dr LS Forbes Winslow‘ family residence was situated at 23 Cavendish Square (see at left) , his city‘ consulting house where his widowed mother lived together with his sister Susannah Frances & her husband Arthur Wm A Beckett (centre) , a prolific barrister & writer [also on the staff of Punch] who became Winslow’ ‘Wicked Usurper‘ . He threw the Winslow family‘ estates into Chancery resulting in the auction of  '84 whereby a/o Winslow’ Mastiff kennels were disbanded and sold .

Crown Prince' Dudley colour might have been transmitted through Old Flora , his great grandam in  case The Emperor , instead of Young Prince , sired Crown Prince . Malcolm B Wynne mentioned in the American Kennel register , 1885 ~ ‘Old Flora had light, dull , reddish coloured points , her ears , muzzle and nose being of that colour which is sometimes described as coffee-coloured and as the Dudley front . On making enquiry of James Morris , he stated to me that they know nothing of Flora's pedigree or breeding .’   This is in strong contrast with the studbooks of 1874 wherein is mentioned that Old Flora was a pure Lyme Hall bitch …

Coming back to that exquisite stud Beau , one must consider the fact all his male generation lines died out ca 1900 instead of Crown Prince who’s the only centre point of all the 20th C male lines a/o due to the disastrous effects of both World Wars . In Beau' respect , there was an interesting breeder , Mr James Hutchings , who started off his breeding with three litters sired by Brindled Pluto ,  bred by MB Wynne [who knew his classics !]  . The strain of the only breeder who afterwards had linebred to Beau along several generations , namely Mr Hutchings' one  , isn't rather unfortunately used afterwards . His last recorded litter , born in 1894, went back to Beau along all grandparents , resulting in a theoretical percentage  of more than 23 , or doubled up in comparison with Mr  CC Rice' champion Elgiva .

James Hutchings , a Mastiff judge at championship level ,  favoured the brindle colour as also did the old breeder Mr THV Lukey whose famous stud Governor born 1861 , was nevertheless an apricot fawn sired by Colonel J Garnier' dog , the red fawn ' Lion ' , born in November 1857 , and brought back to England after his master’ stay at Canada .

At left ~ Gandy street , a narrow shopping street , where Mr James Hutchings had a solicitor & insurance agent office , very near Saint Peter’ Cathedral at Exeter , some fifteen miles away Dartmoor park where in 1901 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle did his excursions during the early stages of planning his bestseller 'The Hound of the Baskervilles’ .Holmes shoots the sinister hound . ‘Holmes emptied five barrels of his revolver into the creature's flank’. Illustration by Sidney Paget in 'The Strand Magazine', London August 1901 . Sir AC Doyle [1859-1930] was born in Edinburgh , Scotland ; he studied to be a doctor at the University of Edinburgh and set up a small practice at Southsea [Portsmouth] in Hampshire .

The already mentioned Colonel John Garnier' Lion was sired by Adam out of Eve ; both parents were bought from Bill George.  Adam , one of a pair of Lyme Hall Mastiffs , was bought at Tattersall's ; he stood 30 1/2  in. at the shoulder , with good length of body , good muscular shoulders and loins but was slightly deficient in depth of body and breadth of forehead ; Adam had a peculiar forward lay of his small ears , maybe as a result of a remote dash of Boarhound . Eve was obtained by Bill George from a dealer in Leadenhall Market (see pic below) . She had a broad round head , good loin and deep lengthy frame . Colonel J Garnier's Adam sired also Marquis who was one of the studs used by Captain George Augustus Graham [1833 – 1909] , the Irish Wolfhound breeder who saved this breed from extinction and compiled in 1886 the Standard of points of the Irish Wolfhounds together with Col. JE Garnier RE [Royal Engineer] who , living at Taunton , also knew the hounds of Lord Derby who got back to Lord Altamont' stock ..

Lord Altamont [John Denis Browne 1756 –1809 , Westport , Mayo ~ Ireland] seems to have had two distinct kinds , one Greyhound-like, and the other Mastiff shaped , smooth coated , and marked with dark patches on white .  According to Malcolm Bush Wynne , Kirklees' gamekeeper John Crabtree supposed that Waterton' Tiger , one of the pillars of recorded early Mastiff  breeding , was a descendant of Lord Altamont' stock . Waterton’ Tiger was an upstanding red fawn animal , procured in Ireland with cropped ears and bobtailed , standing 34 inches at the shoulder and much of the boarhound in appearance .

His owner , Squire Charles Waterton (1782-1865) , was an eccentric travellist and pioneering naturalist who explored the tropical forests of South America [a/o British Guyana] and observed the richness of their natural history . Afterwards he returned to his home in Yorkshire  at Walton Hall near Sandel , Wakefield , where he then set about managing his estate for forty years as a protected environment for wildlife and is thought as the world' first nature reserve . Walton Hall is a Georgian mansion on an island surrounded by a twenty six acres lake only accessible by a picturesque bridge . It was visited in 1845 by Charles Darwin who considered Squire Waterton as ~ 'an amusing strange fellow ; the strangest mixture of extreme kindness, harshness and bigotry that I ever saw .

This 19th Century breed review may not miss the breed link to the Royal family by means of HRH Queen Victoria' eldest son  Edward VII [1841-1910] , who spent much of his time enjoying himself at society events . It also was stated that in 1864 he entered an Indian Mastiff (see  pic -  some eight illustrations back together with Tibetan Mastiff & Esquimaux Dog) at the Islington dog show . A judge report mentioned that this dog was of even better Mastiff quality than the 'English' Mastiffs at the same show a/o Hanbury’ Duchess , Lukey’ Countess & Governor .

The same year Edward VII bred a Mastiff litter from which Duchess was entered into the KC studbooks under No 2367 ; her dam was an unregistered , called Rahnee , who was mated to Prince bred & owned by Mr Hanbury ; Prince was out of the first Mastiff champion Duchess sired by Mr Lukey's Governor . At Islington Dairy Farm in 1869 , first prize in dogs was for champion Turk seconded by his brother Prince sired by ch Field' King and bred by Miss Anglionby , extra prize in dogs was awarded to Mr Lukey' Baron , also sired by ch King.

Fr l to r - Ch King , his son ch Turk , the latter sold to Mr Robinson for £580 in a period wherein a London' engineer earned ca £100/pro year ; ch King was bred by GK Field and sired also 4 other champions , ie Taurus (3rd fr left) , Wynne' Peeress.

HRH the Prince of Wales , Edward VII , entered his five years old Duchess and this competition ran quite hardly….  Duchess was beaten , getting third prize after the one year old Baron’s  sis , Beauty ,  bred and owned by Mr Lukey , second prize was for Mr Edwin Nichols' Stella , bred by father Rowe . In those days one certainly didn't judge the lead end at Islington Dairy Farm !

At left - The Illustrated London News ~ Prize dogs in the National Dog Show at Dairy Farm , Islington , June 12 1869 ; at left  ~ a specimen owned by Edwin Nichols  [maybe Brenda , great grandam of ch Lottie] ; at right ~ Druid b. 1865  sired by Lukey’ Wallace ~ Druid became the sire of Edgar Hanbury’ supreme champion bitch Queen , ch Wolsey’ dam ; at right - The front cover of Count Henri Adrien de Bylandt [1860-1943] ’kynological master-piece , titled ‘Les races de chiens‘, edited 1904 in two volumes of each more than 800 pages and counting some 2300 engravings. Price of the whole work, plain bound , £ 1 ; cloth , 24 shillings .

At the end of the 19th century , the Great Dane club was one of the most flourishing of the specialist clubs counting a hundred members,  even more than the National St. Bernard club . The Great Dane was considered as a 'nouveau chien' and from 1885 on , the German kennel 'Westend' of Herr Eduard Messter , Berlin , won a lot of prizes at the London’ shows as shown by a delicate tableau of framed champions (see here below) .

King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra were regular visitors to the show benches at Crufts , here admiring Great Danes ; at right below ~ An advert of the ‘ Westend ’ kennels owned by Herr Messter  [Berlin] , edited in Count Henri de Bylandt ‘ cynological encyclopedia ‘Les races de chiens‘ , two vols .

Few breeds of large breeds have elicited such an enthusiastic appreciation in those days as the Dane , who became naturalised by Prince Bismarck' affections towards the German breed and by the interests of the great artists as Edwin Landseer and Walter Scott who endeared the Dane to the dog fancy in a special manner . As a subject for the artist, there wasn't any canine model in the world that more completely satisfied the critical eye and the artistic taste .

The importer & breeder Mrs Horsfall  [Redgrave]  , Mr Smidt and the dedicated breeders Mr Robert Leadbetter & Mrs Sparks have introduced and established the breed in England . The latter remarked that , when they are well trained , she was in the habit of taking five or six Danes out in the busy streets of London . In those days a considerable number of Danes was employed as performing dogs on the stage . They were fearless , very sporting  and so they became one of the most popular breeds in the kingdom.

Mr Robert Leadbetter living at Hazlemere Park , some 50 miles east of London city , was the President of the Great Dane club , but also the secretary of the Old English Mastiff club . Besides his stock of Great Danes , he once owned some forty Mastiffs . He possessed nine of the twelve champions born between April 1893 and February 1905 , the remaining ones were owned by the Helmsley breeder Mr Spalding [Marchioness & Helmsley Defender] and by Mr Aubrey-Smith [Colonel Cromwell , Defender's uncle] .

Champion Colonel Cromwell [Invicta ex Leda unr.] born 1899 , bred by A.W. Lucas of Rotherhite & owned by the grand actor Charles Aubrey Smith . He was awarded challenge certificates by Dr Sidney Turner [2x] at the Crystal Palace KC shows , Lt Col Z Walker at Manchester & the eminent Bloodhound breeder Edwin Brough at Birmingham .

Leadbetter bought crowned champions ~ Marksman , Elgiva and Clarice and obtained Holland' Black Boy and Ha Ha , both already awarded with two cc's . This colourful dog fancier described his ideal Mastiff as following ~ 'He should be built like a little cart-horse , on cloddy lines all through. His head should be his great attraction, always large and broad , his brow heavy wrinkled , giving him a puzzled expression when his attention is carefully given to any fresh object .’ This wrinkle or 'character' as it is termed is always difficult to breed ; still it is one of the greatest characteristics of the variety - in fact the greatest , and a Mastiff without it loses his charm .

From l to r -  Stafford Belle b. 1892 , her son ch. Mark Antony b. 1893 , painted & photographed .  Belle & Mark Antony were both bred by McKrill of Cheetham [Manchester] . Below at left - Marksman  [ch. Mark Anthony ex Lady Constable] born 1896 & bred by H. Wilkinson Appleton nr Liverpool ;  below at right  ~ Black Anthony [ch. Mark Anthony ex Eldee’ Selina unr.] born 1897 & bred by Mr Van Koldewyn . He got challenge certificates at Birmingham 1901 under St Bernard breeder Fred Gresham & Cruft’s 1902 under breed specialist AJ Thorpe 

Robert Leadbetter , a Master of Foxhounds , owned reportedly at one time a  private exorbitant menagerie larger than any other living man , a/o fifteen lions , five elephants , and a number of      tigers , bears and monkeys . He bred his first Mastiff litter in 1901 out of Lyndhurst Rose ex champion Marksman , containing several winners ~ Young Marksman , Pinner Beau  [2 cc's]  and champion Czar Peter .

Only six Mastiff litters , born in 1901 , were represented into the Kennel Club Studbooks which is a considerable decrease against the forty or more numbers in the early eighties . 1901 [ 22 Januar ] was also the year H.R.H. Queen Victoria died at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight nearby the South Coast .

Drawing  presenting ch Beau' son Boatswain of Plavia kennels owned by Mr Max Hartenstein & ch Hazlemere Archie ; at right -  photograph of the Hazlemere champion brothers  [ch Marksman ex Lyndhurst Rose]  owned by Ronald Leadbetter , Esq , Master of Foxhounds  , the brindle Czar Peter & Archie , the latter being the sire of the splendid champion Ronald .

Having introduced only briefly a number of 'bricks' regarding the fixation of the OEMC type , later on commonly accepted as the correct one , it isn't difficult to understand the huge problems to breed towards a uniform type in times to come . 

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