Trentham & Quaker

The Duke of Sutherland ‘ Trentham breed - Origin of  the Cautley’  Quaker male line

The ‘Duke of Sutherland’ Leveson-Gower family grew to be very influential , and were active in politics , diplomacy and commerce with interests in many local industries including coal mining . The first three  ‘ Dukes of Sutherland ’ generations were named George Granville [1st ~ 1758-1833] ,   [2nd 1786-1861] & [ 3rd  1828-1892 ] ; they all were by inheritance President of the British Institution . The first Duke was a maecenas in pursuit of fine arts and became notorious for his involvement with the Highland Clearances on the estates of his wife , Elizabeth the Countess of Sutherland [a/o Dunrobin Castle , Northern Scotland] .

The second Duke married Harriet Howard [1806-1868]  , niece of William Spencer Cavendish [1790-1858] , 6th Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth *  , renowned for his Mastiff strain . The 2nd Duke ruled his duchy from 1833 until his death in 1861 . Cautley Quaker’ grandsire the brindle Ackroyd’ Dan , born around 1850 , belonged to the Trentham Hall Mastiff strain , maybe also influenced by the Chatsworth strain * . The third Duke of Sutherland was described in Vanity Fair as ' Simple and unassuming himself , yet magnificent and generous towards his fellow men , he is the very Prince of Dukes '.

Trentham , a small but handsome village , on the east bank of the River Trent , from which it has its name , and on the turnpike road, three miles SE of Newcastle-under-Lyme . It has a station on the North Staffordshire Railway and derives most of its beauties from its close proximity to the elegant and picturesque seat of George Granville , lord of the manor and owner of nearly all of the parish , which contains 2567 souls and 7236 acres . The Leveson-Gower family resided at Trentham Hall , Staffordshire.  It was remodelled in 1834 by Sir Charles Barry [1795-1860] after Buckingham House, in St James' Park . Two years later , Charles Barry won the commission to design the new Palace of Westminster , working with Pugin on the Gothic-influenced building . The House of Lords was completed in 1847 and the House of Commons finished in 1852 . In the meantime , Barry also served on the learned committee developing plans for the Great Exhibition of 1851 . Although Parliament gave Barry a prestigious name in architecture it near enough finished him off  .

The presumable  owner of Cautley Quaker ‘ grandsire , Ackroyd’ Dan ,  Colonel Edward Ackroyd [1810–1887] , Bankfield House ~ Halifax , was in his time the largest wool manufacturer in Britain and known as a true philanthropist . In an era of child labour, appalling housing and grim working conditions , he built the model villages of Copley and Akroydon , in Halifax , providing housing for some of the 7,000 workers in his worsted spinning mills . Fine terraced houses with allotments, a park , co-operative store , stables and All Souls Church . It was to be the first ‘ Urban Village ‘ , several years before the more famous village in Saltaire was built by Sir Titus Salt [1803-1876] . Akroydon mixed the houses of the managers with those of the workers so that the better-off and better-educated could improve the education and behaviour of those lower down the social ladder .

His Victorian prudence was responsible for setting up the Penny bank which was run from the wages offices at his mills , to encourage workers to put money away for a rainy day. Ackroyd’ Dan was stated by the Ormonde pedigree as  ‘brindle , white face ‘ and according to Champion Turk’ K.C. extended pedigree belonging to the strain of the Duke of Sutherland , George Granville Leveson-Gower , residing at Trentham Hall , Staffs , some hundred miles South of Halifax .

Quoting James Wigglesworth Thompson , MB Wynn’s book pp 187 ,  ‘Ackroyd’s Dan  [ sire of Saladin ] was not a large dog , perhaps 28 inches at the shoulder , but had a grand true mastiff head, a beautiful coat , ears fine , neat and half erect , fine straight tail , and great muscular power .’ Old John Crabtree of Kirklees  considered ~’ it was due to Ackroyd’ Dan that the breed was so much improved in head.’

At left - Cross Hall , home of Cautley’ Quaker . In origins a late 17th century farmhouse and in 1770 purchased by one of the first Methodist women preachers , Mary Bosanquet of Leytonstone [1739-1815] . From a wealthy family , she extended the building in Georgian style and established an orphanage in it and accomodated the founder of the Methodist Church , John Wesley [1703-1791] of Lincs. , during his visits to the White Rose County * [ Yorkshire ] ~ cfr the 15th century War of the Roses  between the Houses of York & Tudor [Red Rose of Lancaster] .

John Wesley , 15th child of a former non conformist Anglican rector , graduated from Oxford University [ Christ Church ] and became a priest in the Church of England in 1728 . While he was at the /University , preparing for the Anglican ministry , John Wesley became the leader of a little band of students who sought spiritual renewal through methodical diligence in study and worship . It is ironic that the term ‘Methodist’ now universally associated with the movement iniated by Wesley , actually stemmed from an early experiment in religious life that Wesley tried and found wanting .

They arranged a strict daily schedule of duties , with fixed hours for visiting the sick, conducting schools among the poor , and preaching to those in prison . They prayed aloud three times a day and stopped for silent prayer every hour on the hour  [ a century earlier , they would have been  Puritans …] .  Other Oxford students made fun of them , and expressed their contempt in a variety of derisive nicknames for the group , including ‘The Bible Moths’ ,  ‘The Holy Club’ , and ‘The Methodists’ . The latter label stuck , and continued to follow John Wesley long after he had concluded that man does not achieve peace with God through rules and stringent efforts at self-perfection .

The way Henry Cautley , owner of the famous Quaker bred by JW Thompson , became inhabitant of Cross Hall isn’t known , being in the spinners’ business as ‘Henry Cautley & Co , Bentley street Bradford’ governing a/o Westfield mill & Portland street mills , later on he took up residence at Prospect Hill , Bramley nr Leeds. Altogether with Lukey’ Governor & Bill George’ Tiger , Henry Cautley’ Quaker can be considered as one of the main stud pillars of early Mastiff breeding.

Quaker’ sire Saladin was ‘a dog of great muscular power and activity , with immense strength of jaw , and altough standing not more than 31 inches at the shoulder , could jump a stone wall of ten or twelve feet with ease . He has been to take the dead body of a black-faced sheep in his mouth , and jump a wall of four feet with . Dan , his sire , was a dog of equal activity , but not so large . ‘  sic Quaker & Saladin’ breeder , James Wigglesworth Thompson of Southowram ~ Halifax  [12 miles east of Morley] on pp 184 of ‘The History of the Mastiff’ by Malcolm Bush Wynn  .

At left - XIXth Century examples of Continental Mastiff  type , to compare to the 'Boarhound' type , forerunner of the Great Dane breed , at the right . Boarhounds may most probably have been used by early Mastiff fanciers in order to obtain greater height but at the same time resulting in specimens alike Miss Mary Hales’ champion Lion and his nephew Miss Aglionby’ champion Turk .   ‘

It was not until 1883 that the Great Dane was given a class , and that as a Boarhound , this privilege being granted both at the Palace and at Birmingham , Mr Adcock having influence as a resident in the nearby town of Leamington  . The breed ‘caught on’ fast in England , for in the late fall of 1884  when on a brief visit there we saw splendid dogs , including that grand specimen , Cedric the Saxon , and another almost his equal , the Earl of Warwick . ‘ Vide also James Watson’ The Dog Book [1909] ~ pp 540 .